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  • 常见的螺杆式冷水机组故障有哪些?
  • 本站编辑:杭州凌源制冷设备有限公司发布日期:2018-05-15 22:17 浏览次数:
 
螺杆冷水机
1.高压故障
1. high voltage fault
 
压缩机排气压力过高,导致高压保护继电器动作。压缩机排气压力反映的是冷凝压力,正常值应在1.4~1. 6MPa,保护值设定为2.0MPa。若是长期压力过高,会导致压缩机运行电流过大,容易烧坏电机,还易造成压缩机排气口阀片损坏。产生高压故障的原因如下:
 
The exhaust pressure of the compressor is too high, resulting in the operation of the high voltage protection relay. The compressor exhaust pressure reflects the condensation pressure, the normal value should be at 1.4~1. 6MPa, and the protection value is set to 2.0MPa. If the long-term pressure is too high, it will cause the compressor to run too much current and burn the motor easily, which will easily cause damage to the compressor outlet valve. The reasons for the high voltage failure are as follows:
 
(1)冷却水温偏高,冷凝效果不良。冷水机组要求的冷却水额定工况在30~35℃,水温高,散热不良,必然导致冷凝压力高,这种现象往往发生在高温季节。造成水温高的原因可能是:冷却塔故障、如风机未开甚至反转、布水器不转(表现为冷却水温度很高,而且快速升高外界气温高),水路短、可循环的水量少、这几种情况冷却水温度一般维持在较高的水平,可以采取增加储水池的办法予以解决。
 
(1) the cooling water temperature is high, and the condensation effect is bad. The rated cooling water required by the chiller is at 30~35 C, the water temperature is high and the heat dissipation is bad, which inevitably leads to the high pressure of condensation. This phenomenon often occurs in the high temperature season. The reasons for the high water temperature may be: the failure of the cooling tower, such as the blower unopened or even reversing, the non rotation of the water distributor (showing the high temperature of the cooling water, and the rapid increase of the temperature of the outside world), the short waterway, the less circulating water, and the temperature of the cooling water generally maintained at a higher level, which can be used to increase the reservoir. Methods to be solved.
 
(2)冷却水流量不足,达不到额定水流量。主要表现是机组进出水压力差变小(与系统投入运行之初的压力差相比),温差变大。造成水流量不足的原因是系统缺水或存有空气,解决办法是在管道高处安装排气阀进行排气;原因是管道过滤器堵塞或选用过细,透水能力受限,应选用合适的过滤器并定期清理过滤网;水泵选用较小,与系统不配套。
 
(2) the cooling water flow is insufficient, and the rated water flow rate is not enough. The main difference is that the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the unit is smaller (compared with the pressure difference at the beginning of operation), and the temperature difference becomes larger. The reason for the shortage of water flow is the lack of water or air. The solution is to install the exhaust valve at the height of the pipe to carry out the exhaust. The reason is that the pipe filter is blocked or selected too fine, the water permeability is limited, the appropriate filter should be selected and the filter net should be cleaned regularly; the pump selection is smaller and is not matched with the system.
 
(3)冷凝器结垢或堵塞。冷凝水一般用自来水,在30℃以上时很容易结垢,而且由于冷却塔是开式的,直接暴露在空气中,灰尘异物很容易进入冷却水系统,造成冷凝器脏堵,换热面积小,效率低,而且也影响水流量。其表现是机组进出水压力差、温差变大,用手摸冷凝器上下温度都很高,冷凝器出液铜管烫手。应定期对机组进行反冲洗,必要时进行化学清洗除垢。
 
(3) the condenser is fouled or blocked. Condensate usually uses tap water, which is easily fouling at 30 degrees centigrade. And because the cooling tower is open, it is directly exposed in the air. The dust foreign body easily enters the cooling water system, causing the condenser to be dirty, the heat exchange area is small, the efficiency is low, and the water flow is also affected. Its performance is that the pressure difference and temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the unit are large, and the temperature of the condenser is very high. The unit should be backwashed regularly and chemical cleaning should be carried out if necessary.
 
(4)制冷剂充注过多。这种情况一般发生在维修之后,表现为吸排气压力、平衡压力都偏高,压缩机运行电流也偏高。应在额定工况下根据吸排气压力和平衡压力以及运行电流放气,直至正常。
 
(4) the refrigerant is overcharged. This situation usually occurs after maintenance, which is characterized by suction and exhaust pressure, high balance pressure and high operating current of compressor. It should be deflated according to the suction and exhaust pressure and the balance pressure and the operating current under normal operating conditions until normal.
 
(5)制冷剂内混有空气、氮气等不凝结气体。这种情况一般发生在维修后,抽真空不彻底。只能排掉,重新抽真空,重新充注制冷剂。
 
(5) the refrigerant is mixed with air, nitrogen and other non condensable gases. This condition usually occurs after maintenance, and the vacuum is not thorough. It can only be removed, re vacuumed and recharged refrigerant.
 
(6)电气故障引起的误报。由于高压保护继电器受潮、接触不良或损坏,单元电子板受潮或损坏,通信故障引起误报。这种假故障,往往电子板上的HP故障指示灯不亮或微亮,高压保护继电器手动复位无效,电脑显示“HP RESET”,或自动消失,测压缩机运行电流正常,吸排气压力也正常。
 
(6) misinformation caused by electrical faults. Due to dampness, poor contact or damage of the high voltage protection relay, the electronic panels of the unit are dampened or damaged, and communication failures cause false positives. This kind of false fault, often the HP fault indicator on the electronic board is not bright or light, the high voltage protection relay is invalid manually, the computer displays "HP RESET", or automatically disappears, the compressor running current is normal, and the suction and exhaust pressure is normal.
 
2.低压故障
 
2. low voltage fault
 
压缩机吸气压力过低,导致低压保护继电器动作。压缩机吸气压力反映的是蒸发压力,正常值应在0.4~0. 6MPa,保护值设定为0. 2MPa。吸气压力低,则回气量少,制冷量不足,造成电能的浪费,对于回气冷却的压缩机马达散热不良,易损坏电机。产生低压故障的原因如下:
 
The suction pressure of the compressor is too low, resulting in the action of low voltage protection relay. The suction pressure of the compressor reflects the evaporation pressure. The normal value should be at 0.4~0. 6MPa, and the protection value is set at 0. 2MPa. Low suction pressure, low return volume, insufficient refrigerating capacity, resulting in waste of electricity, bad heat dissipation for compressor cooling motor and easily damaging motor. The causes of low voltage failure are as follows:
 
(1)制冷剂不足或泄漏。若是制冷剂不足,只是部分泄漏,则停机时平衡压力可能较高,而开机后吸气压力较低,排气压力也较低,压缩机运行电流较小,运行时间较短即报低压故障,电脑显示“LP CURRENT”,同时单元电子板LP故障指示灯亮,几秒钟后电脑显示“LP RESET”,单元电子板LP故障指示灯灭。
 
(1) the refrigerant is insufficient or leaked. If the refrigerant is insufficient, it is only part of the leakage, then the balance pressure may be higher when the machine is stopped, and the suction pressure is low, the exhaust pressure is low, the compressor running current is small, the running time is short, the low voltage fault is reported, the computer shows "LP CURRENT", and the unit electronic board LP fault indicator light is bright, after a few seconds. The computer displays "LP RESET" and the unit electronic board LP fault indicator lights out.
 
若是制冷剂大部分泄漏,则平衡压力很低,开机即报低压故障,若是吸气测压力低于0. 2MPa,则不能开机,电脑显示“LPCURRENT”,单元电子板LP故障指示灯亮。
 
If the refrigerant most leakage, the balance pressure is very low, start to report low voltage failure, if the suction pressure is less than 0. 2MPa, then can not start, the computer shows "LPCURRENT", the unit electronic board LP fault indicator light.
 
还有一种可能是制冷剂足够,但膨胀阀开启度过小或堵塞(或制冷剂管路不畅通),也可能造成低压故障。这种情况往往平衡压力较高,但运行时吸气压力很低,排气压力很高,压缩机运行电流也很大,同时阀温也很低,膨胀阀结霜,停机后压力很长时间才能恢复平衡。这种情况一般发生在低温期运行或每年的运行初期,运行一段时间后可恢复正常。
 
Another possibility is that the refrigerant is sufficient, but the expansion valve is too small or blocked (or refrigerant line is not smooth), may also cause low-voltage failure. This situation tends to balance the pressure, but the suction pressure is very low, the exhaust pressure is very high, the compressor running current is very large, and the valve temperature is very low, the expansion valve frosting, the pressure is very long after a long time to restore balance. This generally occurs at low temperature or at the early stage of operation, and can return to normal after running for a period of time.
 
(2)冷媒水流量不足,吸收的热量少,制冷剂蒸发效果差,而且是过冷过饱和蒸汽,易产生湿压缩,表现为机组进出水压力差变小,温差变大,吸气温度低,吸气口有结霜现象。造成水流量不足的原因是:系统内存有空气或缺水,解决办法是在管道高处安装排气阀进行排气;管道过滤器堵塞或选用过细,透水能力受限,应选用合适的过滤器并定期清理过滤网;水泵选用较小,与系统不配套,应选用较大的水泵,或启用备用水泵。
 
(2) insufficient flow of refrigerant water, less absorption of heat, poor evaporation effect of refrigerant, supercooled supersaturated steam and easy to produce wet compression, which shows that the pressure difference of the unit is small, the temperature difference is larger, the air suction temperature is low, and the suction port is frosted. The reason for the shortage of water flow is: air or water shortage in the system, the solution is to install exhaust valve at the height of the pipe to carry out exhaust; the pipe filter is blocked or selected too fine, the water permeability is limited, the appropriate filter should be selected and the filter net should be cleaned regularly; the pump selection is smaller, and the system is not matched with the system and should choose comparison. A large pump or a spare pump.
 
(3)蒸发器堵塞,换热不良,制冷剂不能蒸发,其危害与缺水一样,不同的是表现为进出水压力差变大,吸气口也会出现结霜,因此应定期对机组进行反冲洗。
 
(3) the evaporator is blocked, the heat exchange is bad, the refrigerant can not be evaporated. The harm of the refrigerant is the same as the water shortage. The difference is that the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet is bigger and the suction port will frosting, so the unit should be back flushed regularly.(4)电气故障引起误报。由于低压保护继电器受潮短路、接触不良或损坏,单元电子板受潮或损坏,通信故障引起的误报。
 
(4) the electrical fault caused the misreport. Due to the short circuit, poor contact or damage of the low voltage protection relay, the electronic board of the unit is dampened or damaged, and the false alarm caused by communication failure.
 
(5)外界气温较低,冷却水温度很低时开机运行,也会发生低压故障;机组运行时,由于没有足够的预热,冷冻油温度低,制冷剂没有充分分离,也会发生低压故障。对于前一种情况,可以采取关闭冷却塔,节流冷却水等措施,以提高冷却水温度。对于后一种情况,则延长预热时间,冷冻油温度回升后一般可恢复正常。
 
(5) the outside temperature is low, the cooling water temperature is very low, and the low voltage failure will occur. When the unit is running, there is not enough preheating, the freezing oil temperature is low, the refrigerant is not fully separated, and the low voltage failure will occur. For the former case, measures such as closing the cooling tower and throttling cooling water can be adopted to improve the cooling water temperature. In the latter case, the preheating time is extended, and the temperature of the refrigerated oil can generally return to normal after the temperature rises.
 
3.低阀温故障
 
3. low valve temperature failure
 
膨胀阀出口温度反映的是蒸发温度,是影响换热的一个因素,一般它与冷媒水出水温度差5~6℃。当发生低阀温故障时,压缩机会停机,当阀温回升后,自动恢复运行,保护值为-2℃。产生低阀温故障的原因如下
 
The outlet temperature of the expansion valve reflects the evaporation temperature, which is a factor affecting heat transfer. Generally it has a temperature difference of 5~6 degrees from the refrigerant water outlet. When the low valve temperature fault occurs, the compression opportunity stops. When the valve temperature rises, it will automatically resume operation and the protection value is -2 C. The causes of low valve temperature failure are as follows
 
(1)制冷剂少量泄漏,一般表现为低阀温故障而不是低压故障。制冷剂不足,在膨胀阀出口处即蒸发,造成降温,表现为膨胀阀出口出现结霜,同时吸气口温度较高(过热蒸汽)制冷量下降,降温慢。
 
(1) a small amount of leakage of refrigerant is generally shown as a low valve temperature fault rather than a low voltage fault. The refrigerant is insufficient and evaporates at the outlet of the expansion valve, causing the cooling, which shows the frost in the outlet of the expansion valve. At the same time, the high temperature of the air inlet (superheated steam) decreases and the cooling is slow.
 
(2)膨胀阀堵塞或开启度太小,系统不干净,如维修后制冷剂管路未清理干净,制冷剂不纯或含水分。
 
(2) expansion valve blockage or opening degree is too small, the system is not clean, if the refrigerant line after maintenance is not cleaned up, refrigerant is not pure or moisture.
 
(3)冷媒水流量不足或蒸发器堵塞,换热不良造成蒸发温度低,吸气温度也低,而膨胀阀的开度是根据吸气温度来调节的,温度低则开度小,从而造成低阀温故障。
 
(3) the flow of refrigerant is insufficient or the evaporator is blocked. The temperature of evaporation is low and the suction temperature is low, and the opening of the expansion valve is adjusted according to the suction temperature, and the low temperature is low, which causes the low valve temperature failure.
 
(4)电气故障引起的误报,如阀温线接触不良,导致电脑显示-5℃不变。
 
(4) false alarm caused by electrical fault, such as bad contact of valve temperature and line, causes computer to display -5 degrees centigrade unchanged.
 
4.压缩机过热故障
 
4. compressor overheating fault
 
压缩机马达绕组内嵌有热敏电阻,阻值一般为1kΩ。绕组过热时,阻值会迅速增大,超过141kΩ时,热保护模块SSM动作,切断机组运行,同时显示过热故障,TH故障指示灯亮。产生压缩机过热故障的原因如下:
 
The motor winding of the compressor is embedded with a thermistor, and its resistance is generally 1K ohm. When the winding is overheated, the resistance will increase rapidly. When it exceeds 141k Omega, the heat protection module SSM action, cut off the operation of the unit, and display the overheating fault, and the TH fault indicator light is bright. The reasons for the overheating of the compressor are as follows:
 
(1)压缩机负荷过大,过电流运行。可能的原因是:冷却水温太高、制冷剂充注过多或制冷系统内有空气等不凝结气体,导致压缩机负荷大,表现为过电流,并伴有高压故障。
 
(1) the compressor load is too large, overcurrent operation. The possible reasons are that the cooling water temperature is too high, the refrigerant is overcharged or the air is not condensate in the refrigeration system, which leads to the large load of the compressor, as well as the overcurrent and the high voltage failure.
 
(2)电气故障造成的压缩机过电流运行。如三相电源电压过低或三相不平衡,导致电流或某一相电流过大;交流接触器损坏,触点烧蚀,造成接触电流过大或因缺相而电流过大。
 
(2) compressor over current operation caused by electrical fault. If the voltage of the three-phase power supply is too low or three phase unbalance, the current or a phase current is too large; the AC contactor is damaged and the contact is ablated. The contact current is too large or the current is too large because of the lack of phase.
 
(3)过热保护模块SSM受潮或损坏,中间继电器损坏,触点不良,表现为开机即出现过热故障,压缩机不能启动。如果单元电子板故障或通信故障,也可能假报过热故障。
 
(3) the overheat protection module SSM is damp or damaged, the intermediate relay is damaged, and the contact is not good. It shows that the overheating fault occurs when the engine starts up, and the compressor can not start. If the unit electronic board failure or communication failure, false overheating failure may also be reported.
 
5.通信故障
 
5. communication fault
 
电脑控制器对各个模块的控制是通过通信线和总接口板来实现的,造成通信故障的主要原因是通信线路接触不良或断路,特别是接口受潮氧化造成接触不良,另外单元电子板或总接口板故障,地址拨码开关选择不当,电源故障都可造成通信故障。
 
The control of the computer controller to each module is achieved through the communication line and the total interface board. The main cause of the communication failure is the bad contact or circuit breakage of the communication line, especially the bad contact of the interface caused by the tidal oxidation, the failure of the unit electronic board or the total interface board, the improper selection of the dial code switch and the power failure. All of them can cause a communication failure.